The Dispensation Dilemma: Exploring the Debate on How Many Biblical Dispensations Exist
- An Introduction to Biblical Dispensations
- The Traditional View: Seven Dispensations
- The Alternative View: Fewer Dispensations
- The Progressive View: More Dispensations
- Historical Background of Dispensationalism
- Criticisms of Dispensationalism
- Interpretive Implications
- The Importance of Agreeing on the Number of Dispensations
- Further Reading/Resources
An Introduction to Biblical Dispensations
Understanding the Importance of Dispensationalism
Dispensation, in biblical terms, refers to a period of time in which God relates to humanity in a particular way. Each dispensation begins with a new revelation from God and ends with humanity's failure to respond appropriately to that revelation. Dispensationalism is the theological framework that seeks to understand and interpret these different periods of human history.
It is important for Christians to understand the number of dispensations because it helps them interpret the Bible correctly. Each dispensation is characterized by a specific set of responsibilities and expectations for humanity. By understanding these different periods, we can better comprehend what God expects from us in our own time.
For example, during the Dispensation of Innocence (Genesis 1-3), Adam and Eve were responsible for obeying one commandment: not eating from the fruit tree in the midst of the Garden. In contrast, during the Dispensation of Law (Exodus 19-Revelation 20), Israel was given over six hundred commandments from God through Moses. Understanding these different expectations for obedience helps Christians better understand how God relates to humanity throughout history.
Dispensationalism can also help us understand eschatology, or end times theology. For instance, some dispensationalists believe that we are currently living in the Church Age (also called the Age of Grace) which began after Jesus Christ's death and resurrection. This age will end with an event called the Rapture - when born-again believers will be taken up into heaven - followed by seven years of tribulation on earth before Christ returns again at His Second Coming. Understanding this timeline helps believers prepare themselves spiritually for what may come next.
The Traditional View: Seven Dispensations
The Number Seven
The number seven is significant in the Bible, appearing numerous times throughout both the Old and New Testaments. Many Biblical scholars and dispensationalists believe that there are seven dispensations in the Bible. The traditional view holds that these seven dispensations are different eras or periods of time in which humanity was tested by God under different rules or "dispensations."
Examples of Each Dispensation
The first dispensation is called "Innocence," during which Adam and Eve were created perfect and placed in the Garden of Eden. The only rule was to not eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
The second dispensation is "Conscience," after Adam and Eve sinned, they were banished from the garden, leading to this period where humans were left to determine right from wrong based on their own conscience.
The third dispensation, "Human Government," began after the flood when God gave Noah and his family rule over all living things. Humans were expected to govern themselves according to God's moral laws.
Next comes "Promise". During this time period, Abraham was given a promise by God that he would become a great nation with many descendants who would inherit a specific land.
After Promise comes “Law”. Israel was given 613 commandments written on two tablets by Moses at Mount Sinai during their time in wilderness after being led out of Egypt. They disobeyed these laws repeatedly; resulting in exiles into Babylonian captivity.
The sixth dispensation is called “Grace”. It began with Jesus Christ’s death on the cross for humanity's sins - those born before His coming looked forward towards this event while those born after look back towards it as an accomplished fact.
Finally, during “Millennial Kingdom” (the seventh dispensation) Christ will reign physically upon earth for a thousand years, fulfilling his promise to Adam and Eve to fill the earth and subdue it.
Differences Between Dispensations
Each dispensation is different from the others in how God interacts with humanity. The rules governing humanity's behavior are changed between dispensations, and each new dispensation provides a new opportunity for humanity to prove its faithfulness to God. The dispensations also build upon one another, with each one revealing more of God's plan for salvation.
The Alternative View: Fewer Dispensations
Introducing the Alternative View
While the traditional view on biblical dispensations is that there are seven, some theologians argue that there are actually fewer. These dispensationalists believe that the number of dispensations depends on how one defines a "new" or "different" dispensation. Some argue that there are only three major dispensations: the pre-law age, the law age, and the church age. Others argue that there are four or five.
One of the main arguments for this alternative view is that many of the supposed "dispensational changes" in biblical history were not actually major changes at all. Instead, they were more gradual shifts in God's relationship with humanity. For example, some argue that there was no significant change between God's dealings with Adam and Eve before and after their sin in the Garden of Eden.
Differences from Traditional View
The alternative view differs from the traditional view in several ways. First, it posits fewer dispensations than traditionalists do. Second, it tends to emphasize more gradual shifts rather than sudden changes between dispensations. Third, it often views different time periods as overlapping rather than strictly sequential.
One of the biggest implications of this alternative view is that it can call into question certain theological beliefs held by those who subscribe to traditional dispensationalism. For example, if there are only three or four major dispensations instead of seven, then certain beliefs about how God deals with humanity might need to be adjusted accordingly.
The Progressive View: More Dispensations
The Progressive View Introduces More Dispensations
The progressive view of dispensationalism is a relatively recent development within Christian theology. This view holds that there are more than seven dispensations in biblical history, potentially up to twelve or thirteen. The exact number varies depending on who you ask, but the essential argument is that God has worked with humanity in different ways throughout history, and each of these periods can be considered a distinct dispensation.
Arguments for the Progressive View
One of the main arguments for the progressive view is that it allows for a more nuanced understanding of God's plan for humanity. By recognizing additional dispensations beyond the traditional seven, progressive dispensationalists believe they can better appreciate how God has interacted with people in different ways over time. Additionally, some proponents of this view argue that the traditional seven dispensations are not actually supported by clear biblical evidence and instead reflect an arbitrary division imposed by theologians.
Another argument for the progressive view is that it emphasizes continuity between different periods of biblical history. Rather than seeing each dispensation as entirely separate from those which came before or after it, progressive dispensationalists believe there are important connections between them all. In particular, they emphasize how God's promises to Abraham and his descendants underpin everything that comes later in salvation history.
Differences Between Traditional and Progressive Views
The key difference between the progressive and traditional views on dispensations is simply one of number. Traditionalists hold that there are precisely seven distinct periods, while progressives believe there may be several more or fewer than this depending on one's interpretation of Scripture. However, this difference in numbering also reflects broader theological differences between these two camps.
Traditional dispensationalists tend to emphasize how each individual dispensation represents a new era in God's dealings with humanity. They see the various dispensations as almost completely separate from one another, each with its own set of rules, responsibilities, and expectations.
In contrast, progressive dispensationalists tend to emphasize how God's plan has unfolded gradually over time, with each new dispensation building on what came before it.
Historical Background of Dispensationalism
Dispensationalism as a Theological Framework
Dispensationalism is a theological framework used for interpreting the Bible.
It has its roots in the Plymouth Brethren movement of the 19th century, which emphasized the literal interpretation of scripture and a distinction between Israel and the Church. Dispensationalists believe that God has dealt with humanity through different dispensations or periods in history.
Each dispensation represents a different way in which God deals with humanity based on their level of understanding and obedience to Him.
The idea of dispensations can be traced back to the writings of Justin Martyr, an early Christian apologist who lived in the 2nd-century A.D. However, it was not until John Nelson Darby, one of the founding members of the Plymouth Brethren, developed this concept into a full theological framework. Darby believed that there were seven dispensations throughout history.
Influence on Views Regarding Number of Dispensations
Dispensationalism has had a significant impact on views regarding the number of dispensations in biblical history. As previously mentioned, Darby believed there were seven dispensations throughout history: innocence, conscience, human government, promise/nation Israel, law/moses; grace/Christ (church age), and millennial kingdom/new earth.
However, other theologians have disagreed with this view. Some have argued that there are fewer than seven dispensations while others have argued for more than seven. For example, some progressive dispensationalists believe there are more than seven dispensations because they see additional ways in which God interacts with humanity beyond what traditional dispensationalists recognize.
Despite disagreements regarding specific numbers, most conservative evangelicals agree that there are multiple ways in which God has interacted with humanity throughout biblical history. They also agree that these different time periods have unique characteristics that impact biblical interpretation.
Criticisms of Dispensationalism
Outline criticisms against dispensationalism as a theological framework
Dispensationalism is a theological framework that divides human history into different dispensations or time periods, each with its own unique set of rules and responsibilities. While this approach has gained a large following over the years, it is not without its critics. Some argue that dispensationalism lacks biblical support while others see it as overly divisive and even harmful to Christian unity.
One criticism of dispensationalism is that it tends to focus on the differences between different time periods at the expense of their similarities. Critics argue that this approach can lead to an incomplete understanding of biblical history and theology. Instead of seeing continuity throughout Scripture, dispensationalists may miss important themes and connections between different parts of the Bible.
Another criticism leveled against dispensationalism is that it can be overly focused on prophecy and end-times scenarios. While these topics are certainly important, some argue that they can distract from other important aspects of biblical teaching such as living a godly life in the present. Critics also point out that many end-times predictions made by dispensationalists have not come true, leading some to question the validity of this approach.
Explain how these criticisms relate to views on the number of dispensations
The criticisms against dispansationlism as outlined above can have implications for views on the number of dispansations. For example, if one believes in continuity throughout Scripture rather than seeing only differences between time periods, they may reject the idea that there are distinct, separate dispansations altogether. This would be in direct opposition to traditional dispansationlist beliefs which suggest there are seven distinct ages or "dispensations" throughout human history.
Similarly, if one believes that an overemphasis on prophecy distracts from other important aspects of Christian life--which include moral obligations and living a righteous life--they may question the validity of the idea of dispensations altogether. Rather than seeing human history as divided by specific time periods, they may see it as a natural progression where some things change while others remain the same.
Ultimately, these criticisms against dispensationalism highlight important issues that should be considered when thinking about biblical interpretation. While there is certainly value to the concept of different time periods with distinct rules and responsibilities, we must be mindful not to allow this framework to distract from other important aspects of Christian teaching and to avoid viewing Scripture in overly simplistic terms.
Different Views on Dispensations and Biblical Interpretation
The number of dispensations in the Bible can have a significant impact on how readers interpret its content. Depending on the view that one holds, certain passages may be given more weight than others or may be interpreted differently altogether. For instance, those who hold to the traditional view of seven dispensations are likely to view history as having a distinct pattern with specific periods of time marked by God's dealings with humanity in different ways. Consequently, they might read certain parts of scripture through that lens and make assumptions about what this means for end-time prophecy.
On the other hand, those who hold to a progressive view of dispensationalism may argue that there are even more dispensations than traditionalists suggest. In doing so, they would necessarily have to reinterpret some passages that do not fit into their expanded framework. For example, they might suggest that the church age did not begin until after Pentecost and therefore reinterpret certain passages from the gospels or early Acts accordingly.
Examples of How Interpretation Can Differ Based on Dispensational Views
One practical example where different views on dispensations can lead to different interpretations is eschatology - the study of end-time events. Those who hold to a pre-millennialist viewpoint often believe that Christ will return before a literal thousand-year reign here on earth (Revelation 20). The timing for when Christians will be raptured before this period is hotly debated among evangelicals but regardless there is an underlying belief in a future literal reign by Jesus Christ over Israel and Gentiles.
Those who hold to amillennialism would interpret Revelation differently altogether; believing instead in a figurative interpretation where Christ's kingdom was inaugurated at his first coming and continues spiritually during this present church age (the "millennium") until his final return, rather than in a literal millennial kingdom. They might also view the "thousand years" as simply indicating a long period of time before Christ's second coming.
Finally, those who hold to post-millennialism would believe that Christ's kingdom will gradually advance on earth through the spread of the gospel until a time of relative peace and prosperity before Christ returns. In other words, unlike traditionalists or amillennialists, they believe that the world will become more Christianized over time before Jesus returns.
These examples show how different views on dispensations can impact interpretations of scripture, particularly surrounding end-time events. By recognizing this impact on interpretation, readers can be more aware of their own assumptions and biases when reading the Bible and engage in fruitful discussions with other believers who may hold differing views.
The Importance of Agreeing on the Number of Dispensations
Throughout this article, we have explored different views on the number of dispensations in biblical history. The traditional view argues that there are seven dispensations, while alternative and progressive views suggest that there may be fewer or more than seven. While it is interesting to discuss these different perspectives, it is important to consider why agreeing on the number of dispensations matters for interpreting biblical text.
Why Interpretation Matters
The way we interpret biblical text can greatly impact our understanding and application of scripture. For example, if we believe in only one or two dispensations, we may overlook key differences and themes present throughout scripture. Similarly, if we believe in too many dispensations, we may fragment scripture into disconnected parts without seeing God's overarching plan.
Agreeing upon a specific amount of dispensations can also influence how we view God's character and nature. If we believe that God has only given humanity a few chances to obey Him throughout history, this may lead us to see Him as harsh or unforgiving.
In conclusion, while it is interesting to discuss varying viewpoints on the number of biblical dispensations throughout history, what is most important is to acknowledge that a variety of opinions exist and work towards unity within the church body regardless. It’s not necessarily about agreeing upon an exact number but understanding what each individual believes within their own framework.
Ultimately, what matters most is our recognition that God has been actively involved with humanity since the beginning and will continue until He fills the earth with His presence in Revelation 21-22. We should seek an interpretation that unites rather than divides us as believers; one which allows us to better understand God's ultimate plan for history and our role within it.
Whether you believe in seven dispensations, fewer or more, let us not forget that the most important dispensation is the one we are living in right now - the Church Age or Dispensation of Grace. It is during this time that Jesus Christ died on the cross for our sins and rose again, giving us access to salvation through faith. Let us continue to focus on sharing His love and grace with others as we eagerly await His return
Dispensationalism: Rightly Dividing the People of God?
For those interested in learning more about dispensationalism and its impact on biblical interpretation, this book by Keith Mathison provides a thorough overview of the history, theology, and arguments surrounding the dispensationalist framework. Mathison covers topics such as the relationship between Israel and the Church, the nature of Christ's kingdom, and the role of eschatology in dispensationalist thought.
The Case for Progressive Dispensationalism
This book by Robert Saucy provides an alternative view to traditional dispensationalism, known as "progressive dispensationalism." Saucy argues for a more nuanced understanding of biblical covenants and argues that Christ is currently reigning over His kingdom on Earth. Readers will gain an understanding of how progressive dispensationalists approach issues such as Israel's role in God's plan, eschatology, and the nature of Christ's reign.
This comprehensive study guide by Charles C. Ryrie provides an overview of each of the seven traditional dispensations found in scripture. Ryrie explores their unique characteristics and how they relate to God's overall plan for humanity. The guide includes helpful charts and diagrams to aid readers in visualizing these different time periods.
In conclusion, there are many resources available for further study on Biblical Dispensations. These books provide differing perspectives on issues such as Israel's role in God's plan, eschatology, and Christ's reign over His kingdom on Earth. Whether you agree with traditional dispensationalist views or prefer alternative frameworks like progressive dispensationalism or covenant theology, these resources are sure to provide insight into this important area of biblical interpretation.